Affixes

"1 A/ə-/ der  pref  nominalizer attached to an already derived nominal (non-restricted bound roots both in dynamic and stative  + nominal  suffix -pə) e.g.  (dynamic) Åå¤à sub/subə/ washing;  ìó¡R¡¤à feZb/pheŋbə/ cleaning  "Ç¡¤à Asub /əsubə/ (of clothes) washed;  "ëó¡R¡¤à AfeZb /əpheŋbə/  (of utensils) cleaned, (stative) ì>ï¤à nOb/nəubə/ to be new; ìt¡A¡šà  teKp /tekpə/ to be fresh  "ì>ï¤à AnOb/ənəubə/  sb or sth that is new;  "ìt¡A¡šà AteKp /ətekpə/ sth that is fresh.  The derived  words can function as nominals in the following sentences [ó¡ƒå "Ç¡¤[> ú fidu Asubni /phidu əsubəni/  The cloth is washed. ëA¡à>[Å}ƒå "ìó¡R¡¤[>ú  koNsiZdu AfeZbni /konsiŋdu əpheŋbəni/  The utensils are cleaned. [ó¡Kã ³ìÚv¡ûå¡ "ì>ï¤[> ú figi myeKtu AnObni/phigi məjektu ənəubəni/  The design of the cloth is new. ÒUೃå "ìt¡A¡š[>ú  hxgaMdu AteKpni/həŋgamdu ətekpəni/ The mustard leaves are fresh.  These nominals can also function as adjectives in the following way  "Å衤à [ó¡ƒå šå¹A¡l¡ü ú     Asub fidu purKU/əsubə phidu puɾək-u/  Bring the washed clothes;  "ìó¡R¡¤à ëA¡à>[Å}ƒå [΃à =´¶å ú    AfeZb koNsiZdu sid HMmu  /əpheŋbə konsiŋdu sidə thəmmu/  Put the cleaned utensils here.  This prefix ə- cannot be added to  disyllabic roots of the same kind e.g. *">å}[Ťà AnuZsib /ənuŋsibə/  loving *"ó¡\¤à Afjb /əphəɟəbə/ beautiful;  However, this prefix can be added to some further segmentable words.  This application brings a slight change of meaning to the derived words  "ë=à³—¤à  AHoMnb /əthomnəbə/ specially added;  "JĤà ASNnb/əkhənnəbə/ special;  "A¡A—¡¤à AkKnb/əkəknəbə/ particular.

 

  

"2 A/ə-/ der  pref  nominalizer added to bound numerals  "³à Am/əmə/ one;  "[> Ani/əni/ two;  "׳ AhuM/əhum/ three.

 

"3 A/ə-/ der  pref  functioning as a pronominal to form the following form   "ë¤àA¡ AboK /əbok/ my grandmother.

 

-" A/-ә/ der suf perfective   The suffix  comes after /k/ ending roots only    [ó¡ƒå '>à A¡A¡"¤[>¡ú fidu AEn kKAbni> /phidu әinә kәkәbәni/  I have cut the cloth.

 

-"³ Am/-әm/ der suf deictic1  This suffix is added to roots ending in /k/ sound only íÒ "ƒå Òü³à>à ëÒA¡"³K[>¡ú  hE Adu Iman heKAmbni>/hәi әdu imanә hekәmgәni/  My mother would have plucked the fruit.

 

-Òü1 I/-i/ v inf realization  ' ºàÒü[¹A¡ šàÒü¡ú  AE laIriK paI>/әi laiɾik pai/  I read a book.  ' W¡àA¡ ë=à}R¡ã¡ú AE caK HoZzi>/әi cak thoŋŋi/  I cook rice. As an extension of this suffix it can also convey the meaning of habitual fact or natural truth  ' W¡à =A¡Òü¡ú  AE ca HKI>/әi ca thәk-i/  I drink tea habitually.  >å[³;>à ë>à}ìšàv¡û¡à ë=àA¡Òü¡ú numiTn noZpoKt HoKI>/numitnә noŋpoktә thok-i/  The sun rises in the east.

 

-Òü I/-i/ v inf progressive  The suffix comes after /k/ sound only    >èšã³W¡àƒå ë>àA¡Òü¡ú nupimcadu noKI>/nupimәcadu nok-i/  The girl is laughing.

 

Òü I/i-/ der pref 1. first person pronominal added to a bound nominal root  Òü³à Ima /ima/ my mother;  ÒüìW¡ Ice/ice/ my sister;  Òüšà Ipa/ipa/ my father. 2. this prefix can also be attached to nominal free forms  ÒüÚå³ IyuM/ijum/ my house;  Òü¹ÄàÒü IrNnaI/iɾәnnai/ my personal;  Òüì=ïƒàR¡ IHOdaZ/ithәudaŋ/ my duty.

 

-l¡ü U/-u/ der suf deictic3  This suffix is added to /k/ ending roots   ' R¡¹à} Òüì>Kã Ú峃à ëºA¡l¡üÒü¡ú AE zraZ Inegi yuMd leKUI>/әi ŋәɾaŋ inegi jumdә lekui/  Yesterday I hold the night to my aunt's house.

 

-l¡ü U/-u/ v inf suf comand1  The addition of this command marker /u/ to the following vowel sounds /ә/ and /a/ becomes diphthongs  >R¡ W¡àA¡ W¡àl¡ü¡ú nx caK caU> /nәŋ cak càu/  Take your meal. =¤v¡ûå¡ ³àÒü šàA¡šà R¡³—¤à A¡Äà ëÒà;ì>ï¡ú  HbKtu maI paKp zMnb kNn hoTnO>/thәbәktu mài pakpә ŋәmnәbә kәnnә hotnәu/  Try hard to get success.

 

-& Ae/-e/ v inf perfective  The suffix occurs after /k/ sound only   ëW¡ï[yû¡[Î ³ìJàR¡ >à³ ët¡A¡&¡ú cOkCrisi mSoZ nam teKAe>/cәukɾisi mәkhoŋ namә tek-e/  One of the legs of the chair has been broken.

 

-& Ae/-e/ v inf  The addition of this suffix to a non-restricted bound root conveys the meaning of starting of an action or event   ' ÑHæº W¡;캡ú AE sCkuL cTle>/әi skul cәtle/  I am going to school.  "R¡à} "[Î A¡ìÙ¡ú AzaZ Asi kPpe>/әŋaŋ әsi kәppe/  The child starts crying.

 

-* Ao/-o/ v inf suf command2  The addition of this suffix to a non-restricted bound root indicates command with immediate action that will be performed immediately on the spot  The suffix follows /k/ ending morphemes only  [ó¡ Ç¡¤ƒå ët¡àA¡*¡ú fi subdu toKAo>/phi sùbәdu tok-o/  Stop washing clothes.

 

-*Ú AoI/-oi/ v inf negative non-realization  The suffix occurs after /k/ sound only  ' Òüì>ìÒàÚƒà ëºA¡*Ú¡ú  AE InehoId leKAoI>/әi inehoidә lekoi/  I will not hold a night to my aunt's house.

-A¡ k/-kә/ der suf non-realization  If partially gives the meaning of intention also.  The suffix comes after stop sounds   Òü³à íA¡ì=º W¡;A¡[>¡ú Iman kEHeL cTkni> /imәnә kәithel cәtkәni/  Mother will go to market.

 

-A¡ k/-kә/ n  infl associative  The suffix occurs after voiceless sounds  W¡àB¡à #[Å}Kà šå¹A¡l¡ü¡ú   caaKk IsiZg purKU> /cakkә isiŋgә puɾәk-u/  Bring rice and water.

 

-A¡> kN/-kәn/ der suf habitual   The suffix goes with stop sounds  '[ƒ W¡à =B¡Àã¡ú  AEdi ca HKkLli>/әidi ca thәkkәlli/  I usually drink tea.

 

-A[> kni/-kәni/  v inf non-realization  The suffix follows voiceless sounds  ' *[ó¡Î W¡;A¡[>¡ú AE Aofis cTkni>/әi ophis cәtkәni/  I will go to office.

 

-A¡>å knu/kәnu/ v inf suf negative command  The suffix goes with voiceless stops  >R¡ R¡[Î[ƒ ÑHæº W¡;A¡>å¡ú nx zsidi sCkuL cTknu>/nәŋ ŋәsidi skul cәtkәnu/  You do not go to school today.

 

-A¡;1 kT/-kәt/ der suf directional2 (upward)  The phonoligical condition is same to -[W¡>1 ciN/-cin/    ë¤à¹à[Î KàØl¡ã ³=v¡û¡à ÒàšA¡;ºå¡ú borasi gari mHKt haPkTlu>/boɾasi gaɾi mәthәktә hapkәtlu/  Place this bag in the vehicle.

 

-A¡;2 kT/-kәt/ der suf starting  The phonologiical condition is same to   -[W¡>1 ciN/-cin/  >} "S¡ ëÒà;A¡;ºì´¶à¡ú   nx Axk hoTkTlMmo>/nәŋ әŋkә hotkәtlәmmo/  You start doing sums.

 

-A¡;3 kT/-kәt/ der suf  intensifier3  The phonological condition is same to  -[W¡>1 ciN/-cin/.

 

-A¡ã1 ki/-ki/ n inf genetive  The suffix goes with voiceless sounds   º´¬ãƒà JåìƒàšA¡ã >åR¡ t¡àìÒï칡ú lMbid SudoPki nuZ tahOre> /lәmbidә khudopki nuŋ tahәuɾe/  The stone of the ring is lost on the way.

 

-A¡ã2 ki/-ki/ n inf benefactive  The suffix  is optionally followed by   -ƒ³A¡ dmK/-dәmәk/  '>à óå¡[¹; "[Î ë³´¶KンA¡ íº¤[>¡ú AEn furiT Asi meMmgidmK lEbni>/әinә phuɾit әsi memmәgidәmәk lәubәni/  I buy this shirt for Mema.  '>à óå¡[¹; "[Î ë³´¶Kã íº¤[>¡ú  AEn furiT Asi meMmgi lEbni>/әinә phuɾit әsi memәgi lәibәni/  I buy this shirt for Mema.

 

-A塳1 kuM/-kum/ der suf uncertainty  The suffix goes with stop sounds   "Òºƒå ó¡³å}ƒà [ÒšA塳 ët¡ïÒü¡ú AhLdu fmuZd hiPkuM tOI> /әhәldu phәmuŋdә hipkum tәuwi/  The old man seams to have lied down on the bed.

 

-A塳2kuM/-kum/ der suf  negative suggestion  íÒ "[Î ³å[–ƒøó¡à*¤à ëÒB塳[Ρú hE Asi muNdCrifaUb heKkuMsi>/hәi әsi mundɾi phaubә hekkumsi/  Let us not pluck this fruit till it is ripe.

 

-J1 S/-khә/ der suf  The addition of this suffix  /khәi/  a verbal root denotes definiteness of an action   "R¡à} "ƒå A¡àƒà W¡R¡[J¡ú AzaZ Adu kad cxSi>/әŋaŋ әdu kadә cәŋkhi/  The child entered the room.

 

-J;1 ST/-khәt/ der suf directional2 (upward)  ë¤à¹àƒå [W¡}J;ºå¡ú boradu ciZSTlu> /boɾadu ciŋkhәtlu/ Draw up the bag.

 

-J;2 ST/-khәt/ der suf  The addition of this suffix indicates starting of an action   >R¡ W¡àA¡ W¡àJ;ºì´¶àú nx caK caSTlMmo> /nәŋ cak cakhәtlәmmo/  You start eating.

 

-J;3 ST/-khәt/ der suf intensifier3   ">à¤ƒå ³Åà A¡>J;ºì´¶¡ú Anabdu msa kNSTlMme> /әnabәdu mәsa kәnkhәtlәmme/  The condition of the patient has been improved.

 

-[J1 Si/-khi/ der suf   The addition of this suffix signifies the intensity of the action or event if it is immediately followed by the  negative non-realization suffix -loi   ' W¡àA¡ W¡à[Jì¹àÒü¡ú AE caK caSiroI> /әi cak cakhiɾoi/  I will not take meal right now.   ³ÒàA¡ ëÒï[\A¡ W¡;[Jì¹àÒü¡ú mhaK hOjiK cTSiroI>/mәhak hәuɟik cәtkhiɾoi/  He will  not go right now.   ëÒï[\A¡ hOjiK /hәuɟik/   'now' may or may not be added in the sentence.  Still the verb carries the meaning.

 

-[J2 Si/-khi/ der suf  The addition of this suffix indicates the progressiveness of the action if it is immediately by -kә 'intentive'   ' W¡àA¡ "ƒå³ W¡à[JK[>¡ú  AE caK AduM caSigni>/әi cak әdum cakhigәni/  I will keep eating.  ' ºàÒü[¹A¡ "ƒå³ Òü[JK[>¡ú  AE laIriK AduM ISigni>/әi laiɾik әdum ikhigәni/  I will keep writing.

 

Jå;- SuT/khut-/ der pref  nominalizer attached to be non-restricted bound roots to give the meaning of manner or mode Jå;W¡à  SuTca/khutca/ mode of eating; Jå;=A¡ SuTHK/khutthәk/ mode of drinking;  Jå;ì=à} SuTHoZ/khutthoŋ/ mode of cooking.

 

-ìJà1 So/-kho/v inf suf prohibitive    =¤v¡ûå¡ R¡àÒüÒàA¡ 뺚ìJà¡ú HbKtu zaIhaK lePSo> /thәbәktu ŋaihak lepkho/  Stop doing the work for a while.  Òü¤ƒå R¡àÒüÒàA¡ ët¡àA¡ìJà¡ú Ibdu zIhaK toKSo>/ibәdu ŋaihak tokkho/  Stop writing for a while.

 

-ìJà2 So/-kho/ v inf suf progressive    ºàÒü[¹v¡ûå¡ R¡àÒüÒàA¡ šàìJà¡ú laIriKtu zaIhaK paSo> /laiɾiktu ŋaihak pakho/  Keep reading for a while. >R¡ R¡àÒüÒàA¡ ó¡³ìJà¡ú nx zaIhaK fMSo>/nәŋ ŋaihak phәmkho/  Keep sitting for a while.

 

-ìJàÚ SoI/-khoi/ der suf collectivity or plurality  The suffix is added to personal pronouns only 'ìJàÚ šåÄà íº[³Ä[Ρú   AESoI puNn lEmiNnsi>/әikhoi punnә lәiminnәsi/  Let us stay together.

-K g/-gә/derivative,  non-realizational suffix  The suffix follows vowel and nasal sounds  ' W¡àA¡ ë=à}K[> ú¡ AE caK HoZgni> /әi cak thgәni/  I will cook rice.

 

-K g/-gә/ nominal,  inflectional,  associative suffix    It follows morphemes that end in voiced sounds.   W¡àl¡ü¤>à ë³´¶Kà  ºàB¡[> ú caUbg meMmg laKkni> /caubәgә memәgә lakkәni/  Chaoba and Mema  will come.

 

-K> gN/-gәn/ derivative, habitual suffix   This  suffix goes with vowel and nasal sounds   "R¡à} "[Î W¡àA¡  W¡àKÀã ú¡ AzaZ Asi caK cagLli>/әŋaŋ әsi cak  cagәlli/  This child usually eats rice.

 

-K[> gni/-gәni/ v inf non-realization  It follows voiced sounds  ëA¡´š¢ "ƒå Úà*K[>¡ú keMP Adu AE yaUgni>/kemp әdu әi jaugәni/  I will participate the camp.

 

-K>å gnu/-gәnu/ v inf suf  negative command  The suffix comes after voiced sounds  ¯à "ƒå "³åA¡ ÒÄà ÒàÚK>å¡ú  wa Adu AmuK hNn haIrnu> /wa әdu әmuk hәnnә haigәnu/  Do not say that again.

 

-K;1 gT/-gәt/ der suf directional2 (upward)  The phonological condition is same to  -[\>1 jiN/-ɟin/  #[Å} ¤àº[i¡>[Î ³=v¡û¡à =à}K;ºå¡ú IsiZ baLtiNsi mHKt HaZgTlu>/isiŋ baltinsi mәthәktә thgәtlu/  Lift this bucket of water upward.

 

-K;2 gT/-gәt/ der suf starting  The phonological condition is same to  -[\>1 jiN/-ɟin/    ' [ó¡ Ç¡K;º´¶ìK¡ú AE fi sugTlMmge> /әi phi sugәtlәmmәge/  I will start washing clothes.

 

-K;3 gT/-gәt/ der suf intensifier3  The phonological condition is same to  -[\>1 jiN/-ɟin/ šå[Jø[Î "Îå³ ë=>K;ºA¡&¡ú  puSCrisi AsuM HeNgTlKAe>/pukhɾisi әsum thengәtlәk-e/  The water of the pond has become shallow.

-Kã1 gi/-gi/ nominal  inflective,  genetive suffix  The suffix follows voiced sounds >R¡Kã A¡º³[Î šåìJà¡ ú  nxgi koloMsi puSo> /nәŋgi kolomsi pukho/  Take your pen.

 

-Kã2 gi/-gi/ nominal inflectional,  benefactive suffix  The suffix is followed by another suffix  -ƒ³A¡ dmK/dәmәk/  which means 'only'.  ë³´¶>à [ó¡ "[Î 'KンA¡ ëºà>¤[>¡ú  meMmn fi Asi AEgidmK loNbni> /memәnә phi әsi әigidәmәk lonbәni/  Mema embroiders this cloth for me.

 

-P¡³1 guM/-gum/ der suf uncertainty   The suffix follows vowels or nasal sounds   >åšã "ƒå ³šà–ƒà ë=àA¡[JP¡³ ët¡ïÒü¡ú  nupi Adu mpaNd HoKSiguM tOI>/nupi әdu mәpandә thokkhigum tәuwi/   The woman seems to have gone out.

 

-P¡³2 guM/-gum/ der suf negative suggestive   'ìJàÚ ³ìJàÚKã Òü³å}ƒà W¡R¡P¡³[Ρú   AESoI mSoIgi ImuZd cxguMsi>/әikhoi mәkhoigi imuŋdә cәŋgumsi/  Let us not enter their house.

 

-R¡ z/-ŋ/ der suf deictic4  This suffix follows /ŋ/ ending roots only   "R¡à}ƒå>à 'ìJàÚKã Ú峃à ëi¡[º[®¡\> ëÚ}îR¡¡ú AzaZdun AESoIgi yuMd telivijN yeZzE>/әŋaŋdunә әikhoigi jumdә telibhiɟәn jeŋŋәi/  The boy came to my house and watched television.

 

-[R¡ zi/-ŋi/ v inf  progressive  The suffix follows /ŋ/ sound only   ' [Îì>³à ëÚ}[R¡¡ú AE sinema yeZzi>/әi sinema jeŋŋi/  I am watching a movie.

 

-R¡A¡ zK/-ŋәk/ der suf deictic2  This suffix follows verbal roots  ending in /ŋ/ sound only  *\à>à 'ìR¡à–ƒà ¯àÒ} "³à Ò}R¡A¡Òü¡ú  Aojan AEzoNd wahx Am hxzKI>/oɟanә әiŋondә wahәŋ әmә hәŋŋәk-i/  The teacher asked me a question.

 

-R¡³ zM/-ŋәm/ der suf deictic1  this suffix goes with /ŋ/ending roots only    >åšà³W¡àƒå ëÒï[\A¡ [Îì>³à ëÚ}R¡³K[>¡ú nupamcadu hOjiK sinema yeZzMgni>/nupamәcadu hәuɟik sinema jeŋŋәmgәni/ The boy would be watching a movie.

 

-R¡ã zi/-ŋi/ v in realization  It occurs after /ŋ/ sound only   ³ó¡³[Î >àšã Aå¡}R¡ã ú mfMsi napi kuZzi>/mәphәmsi napi kuŋŋi/ Grass are thick here.

 

-Rå¡ zu/-ŋu/ der suf deictic3  This suffix goes with /ŋ/ ending roots only   ' R¡¹à} >}Kã A¡àƒà W¡}Rå¡Òü¡ú AE zraZ nxgi kad cxzuI>/әi ŋәɾaŋ nәŋgi kadә cәŋŋui/  Yesterday I entered your room.

 

-Rå¡ zu/-ŋu/ v inf suf command1  The suffix occurs after /ŋ/ ending roots   "R¡à}ƒåƒà ¯à Ò}Rå¡¡ú  AzaZdud wa hxzu>/әŋaŋdudә wa hәŋŋu/ Ask the boy about the matter.  A¡à "[΃à W¡}Rå¡¡ú ka Asid cxzu>/ka әsidә cәŋŋu/ Enter this room.

 

-ìR¡ ze/-ŋe/ v inf perfective  The suffix comes after /ŋ/ sound only  ' ¯àƒå ³ìR¡à–ƒà Ò}ìR¡¡ú  AE wadu mzoNd hxze>/әi wadu mәŋondә hәŋŋe/  I have asked him about the matter.

 

-ìR¡à zo/-ŋo/ v inf suf command2  The suffix follows /ŋ/ sound only    ºàÒü[¹A¡[Î "³åA¡ ëÚ}ìR¡à¡ú laIriKsi AmuK yeZzo>/laiɾiksi әmuk jeŋŋo/  Have a look at this book.

 

-ìR¡àÚ zoI/-ŋoi/ v inf negative non-realization  The suffix comes  after /ŋ/ sound only   ' ÒìÚ}[ƒ Å}ìR¡àÚ¡ú AE hyeZdi sxzoI>/әi hәjeŋdi sәŋŋoi/  I will not be free tomorrow.

 

-W¡1 c/-cә/ der suf  The addition of this morpheme to a non-restricted bound root denotes reflexivization  ' "ìÎೃà W¡;W¡ìK¡ú  AE AsoMd cTcge>/әi әsomdә cәtcәge/  Let me go to that side.  This suffix follows roots that end in stop sounds.

 

-W¡2 c/-cә/ der suf req This suffix comes after  stop sounds   W¡àA¡ J¹à ÒàšW¡¹ìB¡¡ú  caK Sr haPcrKke>/cak khәɾә hapcәɾәkke/  Let me add some rice.

 

-[W¡>2 ciN/-cin/ der suf repetition  The phonological condition is same to -[W¡>1 ciN/-cin/ ëšà; Úà³—à ëÅà;[W¡>K>å¡ú  poT yaMn soTciNgnu>/pot jamnә sotcingәnu  Do not take many things on credit.

 

-[W¡>1 ciN/-cin/ der suf directional1 (inward).  The suffix goes with roots that begins with an aspirated sound and ends in stop sound  óå¡[¹; "[Î l¡üšåƒà Òàš[W¡Àå¡ú  furiT Asi Upud haPciLlu>/phuɾit әsi upudә hapcillu/  Put this shirt in the almirah.

 

-[W¡>3 ciN/-cin/ der suf intensifier2  The phonological condition is same to /-cin/1  º´¬ã "[Î Ç¡š[W¡ÀA¡&¡ú   lMbi Asi suPciLlKAe> /lәmbi әsi supcillәk-e/  The road has become narrow.

 

-\ j/-ɟ/ der suf reflexivisation   ëšà; "[Î ' Òü=”zà šå\ìK¡ú  poT Asi AE IHNt pujge>/pot әsi әi ithәntә puɟәge/  Let me carry this thing.  This suffix comes after vowel and nasal ending roots.

 

-\2 j/-ɟә/ der suf request  W¡à A¡š "³à šå\¹ìB¡¡ú   ca kP Am pujrKke>/ca kәp әmә puɟәɾәkke/  May I bring a cup of tea.

 

-[\>1 jiN/-ɟin/ der suf directional1 (inward).  This suffix occurs after any root that begins with an aspirated sound and ends in a vowel or nasal sound KàØl¡ãƒå Îå³à}ƒà ë=ï[\Àå¡ú   garidu sumaZd HOjiLlu>/gaɾidu sumaŋdә thәuɟillu/  Drive the vehicle into the courtyard.

 

-[\>2 jiN/-ɟin/ der suf repetition  The phonological condition is same to  -[\>1 jiN/-ɟin/  [ó¡ Úà³—à Ç¡[\>K>å, >} ¯àK[>¡ú  fi yaMn sujiNgnu, nx wagni>/phi jamnә suɟingәnu nәŋ wagәni/  Do not wash many clothes or you will get tired.

 

-[\>3 jiN/-ɟin/ der suf intensifier2  The phonological condition is same to  [Å> siN /sin/ "Òº "ƒå J¹à ëÒÄà ëÅà[gÀì´¶¡ú  AhL Adu Sr heNn soNjiLlMme>/әhәl әdu khәɾә hennә sonɟillәmme/  The old man has become more weak.

 

-t¡ t/-tә/ der suf neg  This suffix followed by another nominal suffix pә or adverbial suffix  -nә, is  attached to a non-restricted bound root to give the meaning of negation   ' #[Å} =v¡û¡>à ºàA¡Òü¡ú  AE IsiZ HKtn laKI>/әi isiŋ thәktәnә lak-i/  I came without drinking.  This suffix comes after roots that ends in stop sounds.

 

-t¡1 t/-tә/ n inf location  The suffix comes after voicelss sounds  ët¡ºUàƒå Úå³=v¡û¡à š>ìJøø¡ú  telxgadu yuMHKt pNSCre>/telәŋgadu jumthәktә pәnkhɾe/  The kite has fallen on the roof of the house.

 

-t¡2 t/-tә/ n inf time   The suffix cannot go with soe specific adverbials of time within the time units and time points.  e.g.   ÒàA塳 hakuM/hakum/ last year,   R¡[Î zsi/ŋәsi/  today  Ò}[W¡; hxciT/hәŋcit/ the dayafter  tomorrow, ëÒï[\A¡  hOjiK /hәuɟik/  now,  R¡ÎàÒü  zsaI/ŋәsai/ before a while,  ëÒàì¹> horeN/hoɾen/ after some time etc.  The suffix can be attached to some time points within a day like  "ÚåA¡ AyuK/әjuk/ morning, >å}[=º  nuZHiL/nuŋthin/ afternoon,  >å[³ƒà} numidaZ/numidaŋ/ night,  "[Ò} AhiZ/әhiŋ/ late night etc.  The time units like  W¡Òã chi/cәhi/ year,  Ha/tha/ month,  W¡ìÚຠcyoL/cәjol/ week etc. can be suffixed by    -t¡ t/-tә/ where the construction gives the meaning 'per'.  Another construction is also possible when it is preceded by an attributive like  ³³àR¡  mmaZ/mәmaŋ/ 'last' and  ³[>} mniZ /mәniŋ/  'next' and numerals.  It can also be attached to the names of days and months   ' ÒìÚ} "Úåv¡û¡à ºàB¡[>¡ú AE hyeZ AyuKt laKkni>/әi hәjeŋ әjuktә lakkәni/  I will come tomorrow morning. >R¡ =àƒà íšÅà A¡Úà ºàA¡Òü?  nx Had pEsa kya laKI?/nәŋ thadә pәisa kәja lak-i/  What is your monthly income ?

 

-t¡3 t/-tә/ n inf objective  The suffix occurs after stop sounds.  The personal pronouns  ' AE/әi/ I,  'ÒàA¡ AEhaK/әihak/ I, >R¡  nx/nәŋ/ you,  >ÒàA¡ nhaK/nәhak/ you,  ³à  ma/ma/ he,  ³ÒàA¡  mhaK/mәhak/ he cannot go with the objective suffix  -t¡ t/-tә/  They automatically change to  'ìR¡à–ƒà AEzoNd/әiŋondә/ to me   >ìR¡à–ƒà nzoNd/nәŋondә/  to you,   ³ìR¡à–ƒà mzoNd /mәŋondә/ to him with the addition of a particle  /ŋon/    Òü³à>à 'ìR¡à–ƒà íW¡¹A¡Òü¡ú  Iman AEzoNd cErKI>/imanә әiŋondә cәiɾәk-i/  Mother scolded me.

 

-t¡4 t/-tә/ n inf goal    '>à [šÅv¡û¡à ºàÒü[¹A¡ "³à šã¡ú AEn pisKt laIriK Am pi>/әinә pisәktә laiɾik әmә pi/  I give a book to Pishak.

 

-t¡5 t/-tә/n inf possessor   ó¡àÒüºƒå [šÅv¡û¡à íº¡ú  faILdu pisKt lE>/phaildu pisәktә lәi/  The file is with Pishak.

 

-t¡6 t/-tә/ n inf beneficiery or experiencer    '>à šàl¡ü "ƒå [šÅv¡û¡à t¡´¶ã¡ú AEn paU Adu pisKt tMmi>/әinә pau әdu pisәktә tәmmi/  I give the message to Pishak.  ëJàR¡l¡üš[Î [šÅv¡û¡à W¡àl¡üÒü¡ú SoZUPsi pisKt caUI> /khoŋupsi pisәktә cauwi/  The shoe is big for Pishak.

 

-t¡Kã tgi/-tәgi/  n inf source  The suffix goes with voiceless sounds    >åšà³W¡àƒå l¡ü=v¡û¡Kã t¡à¹ìAá¡ú nupamcadu UHKtgi tarKAe> /nupamәcadu uthәktәgi taɾәk-e/  The boy fell from the tree.  Another extension of the suffix is -t¡  t/-tә/ where it can replace  -t¡Kã tgi/-tәgi/  But there is a slight difference of meaning in the use of these two suffixes.  The suffixation of   -t¡ t/-tә/ indicates the continuation of an action or refers to a general practice whereas  -t¡Kã  tgi/-tәgi/ shows a particular action that is completed. e.g.   ' ³ìR¡à–ƒà "S¡ t¡´¶ã¡ú AE mzoNd Axk tMmi>/әi mәŋondә әŋkә tәmmi/  I learn mathematics from him.  & ³ìR¡à–ƒKã "S¡ t¡´¶ã¡ú  AE mzoNdgi Axk tMmi> /әi mәŋondәgi әŋkә tәmmi/  I learn mathematics from him.

 

-t¡; tx/-tәŋ/ der suf isolation  The suffix occurs after stop sounds   ºàÒü[¹v¡û¡} íº¹A¡l¡ü¡ú laIriKtx lErKU>/laiɾiktәŋ lәiɾәk-u/  Buy books only.

 

-tå¡ tu/-tu/ der suf determiner  >åšàƒå W¡R¡ÒÀA¡l¡ü¡ú  nupadu cxhLlKU> /nupadu cәŋhәllәk-u/  Let the man enter.  The suffix comes after voiceless sounds  ó¡v¡ûå¡ Òü³å}ƒà šå[ÅÀA¡l¡ü¡ú  fKtu ImuZd pusiLlKU>/phәktu imuŋdә pusillәk-u/  Bring the mat in the house.

 

-[t¡ ti/-ti/ der suf particarization  The suffix goes with stop sounds   ëi¡¤º ³=v¡û¡à í³ìJ;[t¡ íº¹³ìƒ¡ú tebL mHKt mESeTti lErMde> /tebәl mәthәktә mәikhetti lәiɾәmde/  The matchbox was not on the table.

 

-ìt¡ te/-te/ v inf suf negative non-realization  The suffix follows voiceless stops   ' *[ó¡Î W¡;ìt¡¡ú AE Aofis cTte>/әi ophis cәtte/  I do not go to office.  ' W¡à =A¡ìt¡¡ú AE ca HKte>/әi ca thәkte/  I do not drink tea.

 

-ìt¡àA¡1 toK/tok/ der suf completeness  The suffix goes with any non-restricted bound root that begins with an aspirated sound and ends in a stop sound   #[Å}ƒå ëºàÒü>à =ìv¡û¡àB¡>å¡ú IsiZdu loIn HKtoKknu> /isiŋdu loinә thәktokkәnu/  Do not drink all the water.

 

-ìt¡àA¡2 toK/-tok/ der suf intensifier5   The phonological condition of the suffix is same to  -ìt¡àA¡1 toK /-tok/   Úà³ "ìt¡à;šƒå R¡àÒüÒàA¡ =´¬ƒà ë=à;ìt¡àAáB¡[>¡ú  yaM AtoTpdu zaIhaK HMbd HoTtoKlKkni>/jam әtotpәdu ŋaihak thәmbәdә thottoklәkkәni/  The dough will become softer after keeping for a while.

-=1 H/-thә/ der suf directional3  (downward)  ë¤àº "ƒå *”‚¹A¡&¡ú  boL Adu AoNHrKAe>/bol әdu onthәɾәk-e/  The ball has rolled down. l¡üìW¡A¡ "ƒå šàÒü=¹A¡&¡ú  UceK Adu paIHrKAe>/ucek әdu paithәɾәk-e/  The bird has flew down.

 

-=2 H/-thә/ der suf progressive3  ºàÒü[¹A¡ ³Jà šà=ìJà¡ú laIriK mSa paHSo>/laiɾik mәkha pathәkho/  Keep reading.  The suffix cannot be added  to disyllabic stems e.g.    =à\=¤à   HajHb /thaɟәthәbә/  The progressiveness of the disyllabic stems can be indicated by the progressive suffix  -li only.  While in the case of monosyllabic roots both -thә and -li can be attached to the roots. 

 

-=3 H/-thә/ der suf intensifier4   [ó¡ "[Î šà=칡ú  fi Asi paHre>/phi әsi pàthәɾe/  The cloth becomes thinner.  í³ "[Î ³³=칡ú mE Asi mMHre>/mәi әsi mәmthәɾe/  The light becomes dim.

 

-ì=àA¡1 HoK/-thok/ der suf the addition of this morpheme to a non-restricted bound root gives the meaning of completeness   [ó¡[Å}ƒå '>à Ç¡ìƒàA¡J칡ú fisiZdu AEn sudoKSre> /phisiŋdu әinә sudokkhәɾe/  I have washed the clothes.  '>à W¡àA¡ ëºàÒü>à W¡àì=àA¡&¡ú AEn caK loIn caHoKAe>/әinә cak loinә cathok-e/  I ate all the  rice.

 

-ì=àA¡2 HoK/-thok/ der suffix intensifier5  >R¡[ƒ Aå¡Wå¡ ëR¡ïì=àA¡&¡ú nxdi kucu zOHoKAe>/nәŋdi kucu ŋәuthok-e/  Your complexion becomes fair.  "R¡à} "[Î ³Åà ë>àÚì=àA¡&¡ú AzaZ Asi msa noIHoKAe>/әŋaŋ әsi mәsa noithok-e/  The child becomes more fat.

 

d g/-dә/der suf neg  This suffix follows any non-restricted bound root that ends in vowel or nasal sounds    ³Òà[v¡û¡ #¹ç¡\ƒ>à W¡àA¡ W¡àÚ¡ú mhaKti Irujdn caK caI> /mәhakti iɾuɟәdәnә cak cai/  He took meal without bathing.

 

1 d/-dә/ n inf  location  The suffix comes after voiced sounds   >R¡ ët¡à´¬Kã Ú峃à W¡;ºå¡ú  nx toMbgi yuMd cTlu>/nәŋ tombәgi jumdә cәtlu/  You go to Tomba's house.

 

2 S/-dә/ n in time  The suffx goes with voiced sounds  >R¡ ÒìÚ} "ÚåA¡ šå} ³R¡àƒà ºàA¡l¡ü¡ú  nx hyeZ AyuK puZ mzad laKU>/nәŋ hәjeŋ әjuk puŋ mәŋadә lak-u/  You come tomorrow at 5 a.m.

 

3 d/-dә/ n inf benefactive  The suffix occurs after voiced sounds   "R¡à}ƒà ³¹³ W¡àƒ>à ó塤à Úà샡ú AzaZd mrM cadn fub yade> /әŋaŋdә mәɾәm cadәnә phubә jade/  It is prohibited to beat child without a good reason.

 

4 d/-dә/ n inf goal   '>à ÒüìW¡ƒà [ó¡ "³à šã¡ú AEn Iced fi Am pi>/әinә icedә phi әmә pi/  I give a cloth to my sister.

 

5 d/-dә/ n inf possessor     ëš[X>ƒå >ìR¡à–ƒà íº¤¹à? peNsiLdu nzoNd lEbra?/pensildu nәŋondә lәibәɾa?/  Is the pencil with you?

 

6 d/-dә/ n inf beneficiery or experiences    '>à ³ìR¡à–ƒà íšÅà [Å}ºA—¡¤à ³t¡³ "³à šã¡ú AEn mzoNd pEsa siZlKnb mtM Am pi>/әinә mәŋondә pәisa siŋlәknәbә mәtәm әmә pì/  I give him a time to return my money back.  óå¡[¹;[Î 'ìR¡à–ƒà ëA¡à´¶ã¡ú  furiTsi AEzoNd koMmi>/phuɾitsi әiŋondә kommi/  This shirt is loose to me.

 

7 d/-dә/ n inf cause or purpose    [ó¡ Åà¤ƒà º} W¡}R¡ã¡ú  fi sabd lx cxzi>/phi sabәdә lәŋ cәŋŋi/  Thread is needed for weaving cloth.

 

-ƒKã dgi/-dәgi/ n inf source   l¡üƒKã l¡ü>à ëA¡Àã¡ú  Udgi Una keLli>/udәgi una kelli/  Leaves fall from trees.

 

-ƒR¡ dx/dәŋ/ der suf isolation  The suffix comes after  voiced ending roots   ët¡à´¬ƒR¡ ëA¡ï¹A¡l¡ü¡ú toMbdx kOrKU> /tombәdәŋ kәuɾәk-u/  Call Tomba only.

 

-[ƒ di/-di/der suf particularization  The suffix comes after voiced sounds  >åšàƒå Úå[ƒ =ìv¡û¡¡ú nupadu yudi HKte>/nupadu judi thәkte/  The man does not drink wine.

 

-ƒå du/-du/ der suf determiner  The sffix occurs after voiced sounds >èšãƒå R¡[Î *[ó¡Ît¡à ºàB¡[>ú  nupidu zsi Aofist laKkni> /nupidu ŋәsi ophistә lakkәni/  The woman willcame to the office today.

 

-ìƒ de/-de/ v inf suf negative non-realization  The suffix occurs after voiced sounds  ³ÒàB¡ã ¯àƒå ' Úà샡ú  mhaKki wadu AE yade> /mәhakki wadu әi jade/ I  do not agree with him.  ' ³à¤å l¡ü샡ú AE mabu Ude> /әi mabu ude/  I do not see him.

 

-ìƒàA¡1 doK/-dok/ der suf completeness  The suffix comes after any non-restricted bound root that begins with aspirated sound and ends in a vowel or nasal sound.  =¤A¡ Ç¡¤à ³ã[Å}>à ëºïƒå Jàl¡üìƒàA¡ìJø¡ú  HbK Sub misiZn lOdu SaUdoKSCre>/thәbәk subә misiŋnә lәudu khaudokkhәɾe/  The labourers cut the paddy plants.

 

-ìƒàA¡2 toK/-dok/ der suf intensifier5  The phonological condition of the suf is same to  -ìƒàA¡1 doK/-dok/  >å[³; J¹[>Kã ³tå¡}ƒà ëW¡R¡ ëÒàR¡ìƒà¹B¡[>¡ú   numiT Srnigi mtuZd ceZ hoZdorKkni>/numit khәɾәnigi mәtuŋdә ceŋ hoŋdoɾәkkәni.  The price of rice will became cheap after a few days.

 

>- n/nә-/ der pref 1.attached to a nominal bound root to form second person pronominals  >³à nma/nәma/ your mother; >ìW¡ nce/nәce/ your sister;  >šà npa/nәpa/ your father.  2. added to nominal free forms  >Úå³ nyuM/nәjum/ your house;  >¹ÄàÒü nrNnaI/nәɾәnnai/ your personal;  >ì=ïƒàR¡ nHOdaZ /nәthәudaŋ/ your duty.

->1 n/-nә/ der suf reciprocal   The addition of this morpheme to a non-restricted bound root denotes an action where two or more agents are involved   R¡¹à} 'ìJàÚ W¡àA¡ W¡àî>¡ú zraZ AESoI caK canE>/ŋәɾaŋ әikhoi cak canәi/  We had a geast yesterday.

 

->2n/-nә/ der suf  The attachment of this suffix to a non-restricted bound root shows  something   reserved   #[Å}ƒå '>à =A—¡¤[>¡ú IsiZdu AEn HKnbni>/isiŋdu әinә thәknәbәni/

 

->3 n/-nә/ der suf adverbial   "R¡à}ƒå A¡Äà ëW¡Àã¡ú AzaZdu kNn ceLli>/әŋaŋdu kәnnә celli/  The child runs fast.

 

->1 n/-nә/ noun inf agentive  The use of this suffix is optional   '>à ë¤àºƒå A¡àl¡üÒü¡ú  AEn boLdu kaI> /әinә boldu kauwi/  I kick the ball.  ' W¡à =A¡Òü¡ú AE ca HKI> /әi ca thәk-i/  I drink tea.

 

->2 n/-nә/ n inf comparative   óå¡[¹; "[Î>à J¹à ëA¡ïÒü¡ú   furiT Asin Sr kOI (furiT myaMdgi)> /phiɾittu әsinә khәɾә kәuwi(phuɾit mәjamdәgi)/  This shirt is more short (among shirts).

 

>3 n/-nә/ n inf instrumental   =àR¡>à íÒƒå ëJàA¡l¡ü¡ú  HaZn hEdu SoKU> /thaŋnә hәidu khok-u/  Peel out the fruit with a knife.

 

-[> ni/-ni/ n inf copulative  It links the nominal with other words in a sentence    "R¡à} ºàÒü[¹A¡ t¡àA¡šƒå ³Òà[A—¡¡ú AzaZ laIriK taKpdu mhaKni>/әŋaŋ laiɾik takpәdu mәhakni/  He is the man who teaches the child.

 

-ì> ne/-ne/ n infl associative    ët¡à´¬ì> W¡àl¡ü¤ì> ëA¡ï¹A¡l¡ü¡ú toMbne caUbne kOrKU>/tombәne caubәne kәuɾәk-u/  Call Tomba and Chaoba.

 

p/-p/der suf deictic4  This suffix goes with roots that end in /p/ sound only >åšãƒå>à 'ìJàÚKã Ú峃à ëW¡} JîÙ¡ú  nupidun AESoIgi yuMd ceZ SPpE>/nupidunә әikhoigi jumdә ceŋ khәppәi/  The women came to my house and winnowed rice.

 

p/-pә/ der suf nominalizer  The suffix  goes with stop sounds  >R¡ íA¡ì=º W¡;šà Úà*ìK¹à? nx kEHeL cTp yaUgera?/nәŋ kәithel cәtpә jaugeɾa/  Will you go to the market (with me) ?

 

p/-pә/ der suf perfective  The suffix goes with /p/ ending roots   ºàÒü[¹v¡ûå¡ '>à Jàl¡üƒà ÒàÙ¤[>¡ú laIriKtu AEn SaUd haPpbni> /laiɾiktu әinә khaudә happәbәni/  I have put the book in the bag.

 

-šA¡ pK/-pәk/ der suf  deictic2  The suffix is attached to verbal roots that ends in /p/ sound only  ³ÒàA—¡à 'ìR¡à–ƒà ºàÒü[¹A¡ "³à t¡ÙA¡Òü¡ú  mhaKn AEzoNd laIriK Am tPpKI> /mәhaknә әiŋondә laiɾik әmә tәppәk-i/  He asked me to buy a book.

 

-š³ pM/-pәm/ der suf deictic1 the suffix follows /p/ ending roots  W¡óå¡ƒå ³Jå³ Aå¡Ù´¶å¡ú cfudu mSuM kuPpMmu> /cәphudu mәkhum kuppәmmu/ Cover the pot.

 

-[š pi/-pi/ v inf progressive  The suffix comes after /p/sound only   ' [ó¡ ³šà> ëJà[Ù¡ú AE fi mpaN SoPpi>/әi phi mәpan khoppi/  I am stitching the border of a cloth.

 

-[š1 pi/-pi/ der suf benefactive  This suffix goes with stop sounds  ³ÒàA—¡à 'Kã [ó¡ Òü[Ñ| t¡A¡šã¡ú  mhaKn AEgi fi IstCri tKpi> /mәhaknә әigi phi istɾi tәkpi/  He pressed my clothes.

 

-[š2 pi/-pi/ der suf request  The phonological condition of this suffix is same to  -[š1 pi/-pi/  [ó¡ "[Î J¹ W¡[ÙÚå¡ú  fi Asi Sr cPpiyu>/phi әsi khәɾә cәppiju/ Please cut this cloth.

 

-šã pi/-pi/ v inf realization  It comes after /p/ sounds only  ³ÒàB¡ã Úå³ 'ìJàÚKã Ú峃Kã =àÙã¡ú  mhaKki yuM AESoIgi yuMdgi HaPpi> /mәhakki/  jum әikhoigi jumdәgi thappi/  His house is far from ours.

 

-šå pu/-pu/der suf deictic3  This suffix goes with /p/ ending roots only  '>à Jàl¡üƒåƒà ºàÒü[¹A¡ ÒàÙåÒü¡ú AEn SaUdud laIriK haPpuI>/әinә khaududә laiɾik happui/  I put a book in the bag.

 

å pu/-pu/ n inf patient  The suffix  serves as a patient or receiver of an action and is generally added to the object of a sentence.  It is optional.  It occurs after stop sounds  '>à ³ÒàA¡šå ëA¡ïÒü¡ú  AEn mhaKpu kOI> /әinә mәhakpu kәuwi/  I call him.   Optional ³ÒàA¡ šå[ºÎ>à ó¡à칡ú    mhaK pulisn fare>/mәhak pulisnә phaɾe/  He was caught by police.

 

-šå pu/-pu/ v inf suf command1  The suffix comes after /p/ ending roots only   ëW¡ "[Î W¡Ùå¡ú ce Asi cPpu>/ce әsi cәppu/  Stitch the papers.

 

-ìš pe/-pe/v inf perfective  The suffix comes after /p/ sound only   [ó¡ƒå l¡üšå ³>å}ƒà ÒàìÙ¡ú fidu Upu mnuZd haPpe>/phidu upu mәnuŋdә happe/  The cloth has been put in the almirah.

 

-ìšà po/-po/ v inf suf command2  The suffix goes with/p/ ending roots only  >R¡ W¡;šà ëºìÙà¡ú nx cTp lePpo>/nәŋ cәtpә leppo/  You stop going.

 

-ìšàÚ poI/-poi/ v inf negative non-realization  The suffix occurs after /p/ sound only   ëW¡ "[Î ' ó¡Aáà}ƒà >ìÙàÚ¡ú  ce Asi AE fKlaZd nPpoI>/ce әsi әi phәklaŋdә nәppoi/  I will not stick this paper on the wall.

 

b/-bә/ der suf  nominalizer  The suffix follows vowels and nasal sounds   >R¡ ºàÒü[¹A¡ šà¤à ëºàÚ¹¤¹à? nx laIriK pab loIrbra? /nәŋ laiɾik pabә loiɾәbәɾa/  Have you finished reading  ?

-[¤1 bi/-bi/ der suf benefactive  The suffix is attached to vowel and nasal ending roots '>à ³ÒàB¡ã [ó¡ "³à íº¤ã¡ú  AEn mhaKki fi Am lEbi>/әinә mәhakki phi әmә lәibi/  I buy a cloth for him.

 

-[¤2bi/-bi/der suf request The phonological condition is same to  -[¤1 bi/-bi/  W¡à "[Î ó¡à>[¤Úå¡ú ca Asi faNbiyu>/ca әsi phànbiju/  Please drink this tea.

 

-¤å bu/-bu/ n inf patient  The suffix comes after voiced sounds  '>à ët¡à´¬¤å óå¡Òü¡ú  AEn toMbbu fuI>/әinә tombәbu phui/  I beat Tomba.  The suffix is optional.  /әinә tombә phui/  'I beat Tomba'.

 

m/-m/ der suf deictic4  This suffix is attached to /m/ ending roots only    íºA¡àÒüKã >åšà³W¡à[Å}>à AᤠÅà>¤à íšÅà ëJàî´¶¡ú lEkaIgi nupamcasiZn kClb sanb pEsa SoMmE> /lәikaigi nupamәcasiŋnә klәb sanәbә pәisa khommәi/  Boys of our locality came to my house and collected money for the construction of a club.

 

m/-mә/ der suf perfective  The suffix occurs after /m/ ending roots  "R¡à}ƒå tå¡´¶¤[>, ºà}K>å¡ú  AzaZdu tuMmbni, laZgnu> /әŋaŋdu tummәbәni, laŋgәnu/  The child has slept, so don't make noise.

 

³1- m/mә-/ der pref 1. added to a bound nominal root to form third person pronominal  ³³à mma/mәma/ his mother;  ³ìW¡ mce/mәce/ his sister;  ³šà mpa/mәpa/ his father  2. added to free nominals  ³Úå³ myuM/mәjum/ his house;  ³¹ÄàÒü mrNnaI /mәɾәnnai/ his personal;  ³ì=ïƒàR¡ mHOdaZ/mәthәudaŋ/ his duty.

 

³2- m/mә-/ der pref 1. added to a bound root to generalize it   ³š> mpaN/mәpan/ border;  ³Aå¡ mku/mәku/ outer layer; ³ÚàÚ  myaI/mәjai/ centre.  2. nominalizer added to a non-restricted bound roots to give the meaning of manner or mode   ³W¡; mcT/mәcәt/ mode of going;  ³W¡à  mca /mәca/ mode of eating  3. nominalizer added to bound numerals ³[¹ mri /mәɾi/ four;  ³R¡à mza/mәŋa/ five.

 

-³A¡ mK/-mәk/ der suf deictic2  The suffix is attached to verbal roots that ends in /m/ sound only   [ó¡A¡[Å} "[Î ÒüìW¡>à ëÚà´¶A¡Òü¡ú  fisiZ Asi Icen yoMmKI> /phisiŋ әsi icenә jommәk-i/  These clothes were packed by my sister.

 

-³A¡ mK/-mәk/ der suf personification   ³ÒàA¡³A¡Îå šà[i¢¡ƒåƒà Úàl¡ü¤[>¡ú mhaKmKsu partidud yaUbni> /mәhakmәksu paɾtidudә jaubәni/  He himself was also present in the party.

 

-³> mN/-mәn/ der suf excessive   >R¡ ¯à Úà³—à R¡àR¡³ìÀ¡ú  nx wa yaMn zaZmLle> /nәŋ wa jamnә ŋaŋmәlle/  You speak too much.

 

-³³ mM/-mәm/ der suf deictic1  This suffix comes after any morpheme that ends with  /m/ sound only šàl¡ü "ƒå ³ìR¡à–ƒà t¡´¶å¡ú paU Adu mzoNd tMmu>/pau әdu mәŋondә tәmmәmmu/ Convey the message to him.

 

-[³ mi/-mi/ v inf progressive  The suffix goes with /m/ sound only   ' #[Å} Wå¡[´¶¡ú AE IsiZ cuMmi>/әi isiŋ cummi/ I am filtering the water.

 

-[³> min/-min/ der suf  associative   If always goes with the reciprocal suffix  n/-nә/  >¤à[> W¡àA¡ W¡à[³ìÄï¡ú nbani caK camiNnO> /nәbani cak caminnәu/  You two eat together.

 

ã mi/-mi/ v inf realization  It comes after /m/ sound only    Jàl¡ü "[Î ºå´¶ã¡ú SaU Asi luMmi>/khau әsi lùmmi/  This bag is heavy.

 

-³å mu/-mu/ v inf suf command1  The suffix follows /m/ ending roots ë=ï¹ã "[Î Å´¶å¡ú HOri Asi sMmu>/thәuɾi әsi sәmmu/  Join this rope.

å mu/-mu/ der suf deictic3  This suffix is attached to roots ending in /m/ sound only  A¡º³ƒå '>à >}Kã ëi¡¤ºƒà =´¶å칡ú  koloMdu AEn nxgi tebLd HMmure>/kolomdu әinә nәŋgi tebәldә thәmmuɾe/  I have put the pen on your table.

 

-ì³ me/-me/ v inf perfective  The suffix follows /m/ sound only  ëšà;[Å}ƒå '>à ëÚàì´¶¡ú poTsiZdu AEn yoMme>/potsiŋdu әinә jomme/  I have packed all the things.

 

-ì³à mo/-mo/ v inf suf command2  The suffix occurs after /m/ ending roots only   W¡´ßà[Î ³Òã Ç¡ì´¶à¡ú cMpCrasi mhi suMmo> /cәmpɾasi mәhi summo/  Squeeze this lemon.

 

-ì³àÚ moI/-moi/ v inf negative on-realization  The suffix follows /m/ sound only  ' íšÅà ëJàì´¶àÚ¡ú AE pEsa SoMmoI>/әi pәisa khommoi/  I will not collect money.

 

r/-ɾә/der suf deictic4  This suffix is attached to vowel ending roots   ët¡à´¬>à 'ìJàÚKã Ú峃à W¡àA¡ W¡àú toMbn AESoIgi yuMd caK carE>/tombәnә әikhoigi jumdә cak caɾәi/  Tomba came to my house and took meal.

 

r/-ɾә/ der suf perfective  This suffix follows any non-restricted bound root which ends in vowel sounds   ëi¡¤ºƒKã ºàÒü[¹v¡ûå¡ '>à ëºï¹¤[>¡ú tebLdgi laIriKtu AEn lOrbni>/tebәldәgi laiɾiktu әinә lәuɾәbәni/  I have taken the book from the table.

 

-¹A¡ rK/-ɾәk/ der suf deictic2  The suffix goes with any vowel ending roots   '¤å ³ÒàA—¡à ëA¡ï¹A¡Òü¡ú  AEbu mhaKn kOrKI> /әibu mәhaknә kәuɾәk-i/  He called me.

 

-¹A¡ rK/-ɾәk/der suf progressive  The suffixation is doe only with vowel ending roots R¡¹à}ƒKã ë>à} W塹[Aá¡ú  zraZdgi noZ curKli> /ŋәɾaŋdәgi noŋ cuɾәkli/  It has been raining since yesterday.

-¹³ rM/-ɾәm/  der suf deictic1  this suffix goes with all vowel ending roots  ºàÒü[¹v¡ûå¡ ³ÒàA—¡à R¡¹à} 'ìR¡à–ƒà šã¹´¬[>¡ú  laIriKtu mhaKn zraZ AEzoNd pirMbni>/laiɾiktu mәhaknә ŋәɾaŋ әiŋondә piɾәmbәni/  He gave the book to me yesterday.

 

-¹à ra/-ɾa/v inf suf interrogative  The suffix is freely attached to any derived morpheme that is from non-restricted bound roots to nominal forms to indicate interrogative sense of an action or event   >R¡ W¡àA¡ W¡à¹¤¹à? nx caK carbra?/nәŋ cak caɾәbәɾa/  Have you taken meal ?

 

-¹à ra/-ɾa/ n inf  interrogative  The suffix follows released sounds  W¡àA¡ ë=à}[º¡¤[Î ë³´¶¹à?  caK HoZzibsi meMmra?/cak thoŋŋibәsi memәɾa/  Is that Mema who is cooking.

 

-[¹ ri/-ɾi/ v inf progressive  The suffix follows vowel sounds  ' íº #[Å} W¡àÒü[¹¡ú  AE IsiZ caIri>/әi lәi isiŋ caiɾi/  I am watering flower plants.

 

-¹ç¡ ru/-ɾu/ der suf deictic3  This suffix is added to vowel ending roots   ƒåA¡à–ƒKã [W¡[> [A¡ìºà "³à íº¹A¡l¡ü¡ú dukaNdgi cini kilo Am lErKU>/dukandәgi cini kilo әmә lәiɾәk-u/  Go and buy a kilogram of sugar from the shop.

 

-ì¹ re/-ɾe/ v inf perfective  The suffix follows vowel sounds   ' W¡àA¡ W¡à칡ú  AE caK care> /әi cak caɾe/  I have taken meal.

 

-ì¹à ro/-ɾo/ v inf suf command2 The suffix comes after vowel ending roots  R¡à "[Î ëºïì¹à¡ú za Asi lOro>/ŋa әsi lәuɾo/  Take this fish.  boL Asi kaUro>/bol әsi kauɾo/  Kick this ball.

 

-ì¹àÚ roI/-ɾoi/ v inf negative non-realization The suffix comes after vowel sounds   ' W¡àA¡ W¡àì¹àÚ¡ú AEn caK caroI>/әi cak caɾoi/ I will not take meal.

 

l/-l/der suf  deictic4  The addition of this suffix indicates an action that is performed at the place of the speaker by a third person  "R¡à}[Î>à R¡¹à} 'Kã =¤v¡û¡à ëÚ;ú  AzaZsiZn zraZ AEgi HbKt yeTlE> /әŋaŋsinә ŋәɾaŋ әigi thәbәktә jetlәi/  This child disturbed in my work yesterday.  The suffix goes with /t/ and /n/ ending roots.

 

l/-lә/der suf perfective This suffix goes with /t/ and /n/  sounds  [ó¡ƒå '>à ëó¡à;º¤[>¡ú  fidu AEn foTlbni>/phidu әinә photlәbәni/  I have stitched the cloth.

 

-ºA¡1 lK/-lәk/ der suf deictic2  The suffixation denotes a completed action.  If involves a dynamic agent and the action is occurred somewhere else   ' ëÒàìi¡ºƒà W¡àA¡ W¡à¹A¡Òü¡ú AE hoteLd caK carKI> /әi hoteldә cak caɾәk-i/  I took meal at the hotel  >åšãƒå>à [ó¡ "[Î ëºàÀA¡Òü¡ú  nupidun fi Asi loLlKI> /nupidunә phi әsi lollәk-i/  The woman embroidered this cloth.  This suffix comes after any root that ends in /k/, /t/, /u/ and /l/ sounds'.

 

-ºA¡2 lK/-lәk/ der suf  The addition of this suffix indicates progressiveness of an a event that had taken place and is still going on  "Úåv¡û¡Kã ëÒï[\A¡ ó¡à*¤à "S¡ ëÒà;º[Aá¡ú  AE AyuKtgi hOjiK faUb Axk hoTlKli>/әi әjuktәgi hәuɟik phaubә әŋkә hotlәkli/  I have been doing sums since morning.

 

-º³ lM/-lәm/ der suf deictic1  added to a bound verbal root indicating an event that is occurred sometimes other than now or somewhere other than here. A verb resulting from the suffixation of this morpheme cannot indicate the event occurring at the present time and right here.  It can take either one of them at one time íÒ "ƒå ëÒï[\[v¡û¡ š;º´¶[>¡ú   hE Adu hOjiKti pTlMmni> /hәi әdu hәuɟik pәtlәmmәni/  The fruit would be rotten by now.  This suffix comes after the consonants   /t/ and /n/.

-ºà la/-la/ n inf iterrogative  The suffix goes with unreleased sounds  R¡¹à} ºàA¡º´¬ƒå >R¡ºà? zraZ laKlMbdu nxla?/ŋәɾaŋ laklәmbәdu nәŋla/  Is that you who came yesterday ?

 

-[º li/-li/ v inf progressive  The suffix follows /t/ and /n/ sounds    ' ¤à\๠W¡;[ºú AE bajar cTli>/әi baɟaɾ cәtli/  I am going to market.

 

ºã li/-li/ v inf realization  The suffix occurs after /t/ and /n/ ending roots   ' ÑHæº W¡;ºã¡ú AE sCkuL cTli>/әi skul cәtli/  I go to school.

 

å lu/-lu/ der suf deicti3  The addition of this suffix indicates an action where the agent goes to some places other than here and performs the action there    ' R¡¹à} íA¡ì=ºƒà W¡;ºåÒü¡ú AE zraZ kEHeLd cTluI> /әi ŋәɾaŋ kәitheldә cәtlui/  I went to the market yesterday.  This suffix goes with /l/ and /m/ ending roots.

 

-ºå lu/-lu/ v inf suf command1  The suffix goes with /t/ and /u/ ending roots   ÅãR¡[Î šåÀå¡ú siZsi puLlu>/siŋsi pullu/  Bind these firewood.  ó¡Aáà}ƒà ³Jåº "³à ×;ºå¡ú fKlaZd mSuL Am huTlu>/phәklaŋdә mәkhul әmә hutlu/ Make a hole in the wall.

 

-ìº le/-le/ v inf  perfective  The suffix occurus after /t/ and /n/ sounds   ë=ï¹ã[Î t¡;캡ú HOrisi tTle>/thәuɾisi tәtle/  The rope is broken.

 

-ìºà lo/-lo/ v inf suf command2  The suffix follows /t/ and /u/  ending roots   >R¡ íA¡ì=> W¡;ìºà¡ú nx kEHeN cTlo>/nәŋ kәithen cәtlo/  You go to market.

 

-ìºàÚ loI/-loi/ v inf negative non-realization  The suffix follows /t/ and /n/ sounds  ' W¡àA¡ ëA¡à;ìºàÚ¡ú AE caJ jiTloI>/әi cak kotloi/  I will not take rice.

 

-¯ã  wi/-wi/ v inf realization  The suffix comes after /әu/ and /au/ It is found only in spoken form in Bengali script.   óå¡[¹; "[Î >ìR¡à–ƒà ëA¡ï¯ã¡ú  furiT Asi nzoNd kOwi>/phuɾit әsi nәŋondә kәuwi/  This shirt is short to you.

 

-[Å>3 siN/-sin/ der suf intensifier2  W¡>à} "[Î >}[ÅÀì´¶¡ú cnaZ Asi nxsiLlMme>/cәnaŋ әsi nәŋsillәmme/  The starch has thickend.

 

-[Å} siZ/-siŋ/ der suf plurality   "R¡à}[Å} "[Î ëA¡ï[ÅÀå¡ú AzaZsiZ Asi kOsiLlu>/әŋaŋsiŋ әsi kәusillu/  Call the children in.

 

s/-sә/ der suf suggestive   'ìJàÚ W¡àA¡ W¡à¹[Îú AESoI caK carsi>/әikhoi cak caɾәsi/  Let us take meal.

 

-Î>å snu/-sәnu/ der suf suggestive    ³ÒàA¡ Úà*\Î>å¡ú mhaK yaUjsnu>/mәhak jauɟәsәnu/  Let him participate.

 

-[Î si/-si/ der suf determiner    ºàÒü[¹A¡[Î šàl¡ü¡ú laIriKsi paU>/laiɾiksi pau/  Read this book.

 

-[Î>¡1 siN/-sin/ der suf directional1 (inward) ºàÒü[¹A¡ "ƒå Jàl¡ü (³>å})ƒà Òàš[W¡Àå¡ú   laIriK Adu SaU (mnuZ)d haPciLlu>/laiɾik әdu khau (mәnuŋdә hapcillu/  Put the book in the bag.  =åì³àA¡ "[Î W¡àA¡ÅR¡ƒà šå[ÅÀå¡ú  HumoK Asi caKsxd pusiLlu>/thumok әsi caksәŋdә pusillu/  Take this basket in the kitchen.

 

-[Î>2 siN/-sin/ der suf  The addition of this suffix gives the meaning of repetition of an action  ³ãKã ³Ú峃à ët¡àÒü>à W¡;[Å>K>å¡ú  migi myuMd toIn cTsiNgnu> /migi mәjumdә toinә cәtsingәnu/  Do not go frequently to other's place.

 

-Îå su/-su/ der suf inclusive  ët¡à´¬Îå W¡;Î>å¡ú  toMbsu cTsnu> /tombәsu cәtsәnu/  Let Tomba also go.

 

-Ò> hN/-hәn/ der suf causative    "R¡à} "ƒå W¡àA¡ W¡àÒÀå¡ú AzaZ Adu caK cahLlu>/әŋaŋ әdu cak cahәllu/  Make the child eat rice.

-ìÒàÚ hoI/-hoi/ der suf collectivity or plurality  The suffix can be added to other nominals freely  "R¡à}ìÒàÚ[ƒ A¡ƒàÚƒà W¡;ìJø? AzaZhoIdi kdaId cTSCre?/әŋaŋhoidi kәdaidә cәtkhɾe/  Where have all the children gone ?

 

Úå yu/-ju/ v inf  suf command1  The suffix follows roots that ends in vowels /e/, /әi/ and /ai/   'ìR¡à–ƒà ºàÒü[¹A¡ "ƒå šãÚå¡ú AEzoNd laIriK Adu piyu>/әiŋondә laiɾik әdu piju/  Give me that book.  ³º³ "[Î ">à¤à ³ó¡³ƒåƒà ít¡Úå¡ú moloM Asi Anab mfMdud tEyu>/molom әsi әnabә mәphәmdudә tәiju/ Apply this oinment to the wounded area. [ó¡ "[Î t¡àÒüÚå¡ú  fi Asi taIyu>/phi әsi taiju.  Stitch this cloth.

 

 

 

Advanced Learner's Dictionary of

Manipuri Language

Directorate of Language Planning & Implementation

Government of Manipur

 

 

Introduction

 

The primary aim of this Dictionary is to standardize Manipuri Language usage in respect of its  words and other idiomatic expressions :  how they are pronounced, how they are spelt, what they mean, and how they are used in the sentences.  The Dictionary, through Manipuri, will also help in learning English Language which is used throughout the world for international communication.

 

MANIPURI SCRIPT

 

In the Dictionary, Manipuri Language is written in two scripts : Bengali and Meetei Mayek.  Manipuri adopted Bengali Script from the 17th Century AD and has been used extensively.  However, Meetei Mayek, the indigenous script of the language has been reintroduced in the Education system gradually from the academic session 2006.  Thus Manipuri words, phrases and sentences are presented in both Bengali and Meetei Mayek which are immediately followed by their phonetic transcription in International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).  Contemporary 36 Manipuri phonemes, their phonetic descriptions, corresponding IPA, Bengali letters and Meetei Mayek are as under.

 

36 Manipuri      Phonetic Description                    IPA      Bengali         Meetei

Phonemes(Place & Manner of Articulation)                     Letters           Mayek                                      

 

12 Vowels

6 Monophthongs 1. Front Close Unrounded                         - i           - Òü,  #,  [,   ã            - I, I, i

                              2. Back Close Rounded                             - u          - l¡ü,  $,   å,   è         - U,   u

                              3. Front Half-Close Unrounded                -e            - &,  ë                  - Ae,  e

                              4. Central Half-Close Unrounded             -ә            - ",   à                  - A

                              5. Back Half-Close Rounded                    -o           - *,  ë à                 - Ao o

                              6. Front Open Unrounded                         -a            - "à,   à                 - Aa,   a

 

6 Diphthongs    1. Back Close Rounded &                            -ui          - l¡üÒü,  $Òü,  åÒü,  èÒü    - UI,   uI

                           Front Close Unrounded

                           2. Central Half-Close Unrounded                -әi          - ',  í                  - AE,  E

                            & Front Close Unrounded

                           3.  Back Half-Close Rounded &                   -oi          - *Òü,  ëàÒü              - AoI, oI

                              Front Close Unrounded

                           4.  Front Open Unrounded &                       -ai          - "àÒü,  àÒü              - AaIaI

                              Front Close Unrounded

                           5.  Central Half-Close Unrounded                -әu          - +,  ëï                 - AO, O

                              & Back Close Rounded

                           6.   Front Open Unrounded &                      -au          - àl¡ü,  à*                - AaUaU

                              Back Close Rounded

 

 

 

 

24 Consonants  1. Voiceless bilabial unaspirated stop          -p              - š                      - p, p

                           2. Voiceless dentialveolar unaspirated stop -t                - t¡, i¡, ;               - t, T

                           3. Voiceless velar unaspirated stop             -k              -                       - k, K

                           4. Voiceless bilabial aspirated stop             - ph               - ó¡                      - f

                           5. Voiceless dentialveolar aspirated stop    - th             - =, k¡                   - H

                           6. Voiceless velar aspirated stop                  - kh               - J                       - S

                           7. Voiced bilabial unaspirated stop             - b             - ¤                       - b

                           8. Voiced dentialveolar unaspirated stop    - d             - ƒ, l¡                   - d

                           9. Voiced velar unaspirated stop                   - ɡ              - K                       - g

                        10. Voiced bilabial aspirated stop                  - bh             - ®¡                      - v

                        11. Voiced dentialveolar aspirated stop          - dh             -                        - D

                        12. Voiced velar aspirated stop                       - ɡh             - Q                       - G

                        13. Voiceless post alveolar affricate               - c              -                        - c

                        14. Voiced post alveolar affricate                   - ɟ              - \, ™                   - j

                        15. Voiced post alveolar aspirated affricate    -ɟh              -                       - J

                        16. Voiced bilabial nasal                                 - m             - ³                       - m, M

                   17. Voiced dentialveolar nasal                         - n             - >, o                   - n, N

                        18. Voiced velar nasal                                     - ŋ              - R¡, }                   - z, Z, x

                        19. Voiceless post alveolar fricative               - s              - Î, Å, È, á          - s

                        20. Voiceless glottal fricative                         -h              - Ò                       - h

                        21. Voiced labial-velar approximant              -w              - ¯                       - w

                        22. Voiced palatal approximant                      - j              - Ú                       - y

                        23. Voiced dentialveolar lateral                      - l              - º                      - l, L

                        24. Voiced dentialveolar flap                          - ɾ              - ¹                       - r

 

HEADWORD

 

In the Dictionary the words explained are arranged in alphabetical order and printed in bold type.  They are called headwords.  The information explaining the meanings and uses of a headword is called an entry.  Sometimes two or more headwords have the same spelling.  These are numbered, for example  JàR¡¤à1  SaZb /khaŋbә/; JàR¡¤à2  SaZb /khaŋbә/  These headwords have the same spelling but they either have different meanings or they are of different parts of speech.  There are five groups of headwords :  Verbal words, Nominal words, Modifying words, Conjunctions and Affixes.

 

Verbal Word

 

Infinitive forms of Manipuri bound verbal roots (or compound stems of such bound roots) are the verbal words.  They are made up of such roots or stems with a phonologically conditioned infinitive suffix -šà p /-pә/ or -¤à b /-bә/.  Verbal words are of three types : Dynamic1 (dym1), Dynamic2 (dym2) and Stative (stv).

 

Dynamic1 (dym1)

 

All the verbal words of action whose roots can go with the imperative suffixes and the suffixes  -[Å> siN /-sin/, -ì=àA¡ HoK /-thok/, -= H /-thә/, -J; ST /khәt/ as Directional markers belong to Dynamic1.  Therefore, ×>¤à huNb /hunbә/  'to throw',  ìW¡>¤à ceNb /cèn-bә/ 'to run',  [W¡}¤à ciZb /ciŋbә/  'to pull' etc.  are  marked with the Symbol  dym1.

 

 

 

Dynamic2 (dym2)

 

All the verbal words of action whose roots can go with the imperative suffixes and the suffixes  -[Å> siN /-sin/,  -ì=àA¡ HoK /-thok/,  -= H /-thә/,  -J; ST /-khәt/ as aspect markers belong to Dynamic2 (dym2).  Therefore,  A¡Ùà  kPp /kәppә/  'to cry',  šà¤à pab /pabә/  'to read',   tå¡´¬à tuMb /tùmbә/  'to sleep' etc.  are marked with the symbol dym2.

 

Stative (Stv)

 

All the verbal words whose roots cannot go with the imperative suffixes belong to Stative (Stv).  They can go with the suffixes  -[Å>   siN /sin/,  -ì=àA¡ HoK /-thok/,  -=  H /-thә/   and  -J; ST /-khәt/ as intensifires.  Therefore   ³å¤à mub /mubә/  'to be black'   Åà}¤à saZb /saŋbә/  'to be long'   [Å}¤à siZb /siŋbә/  'to be wise'  etc. are marked with the symbol Stv.

 

Nominal word

 

Those head words which can go with nominal affixes and can function as subjects in the sentences are the nominal words.  They are of four types  : noun (n), pronominal noun  (n pro), pronominal bound noun (bn pro) and pronoun (pron).

 

Noun (n)

 

Those free naming headwords which can go with nominal affixes and can function either as subject or as object in the sentences are nouns.  Therefore   l¡ü U /u/ 'tree',   ºàÒü[¹A¡ laIriK /laiɾik/  'book' etc. are nouns.  They are marked with the symbol n.

 

Pronominal noun (n pro)

 

Pronominal nouns are those that can go with pronominal prefixes   Òü- I /i-/ 'first person pronominal prefix',  >- n /nә-/  'second person pronominal prefix and  ³- m /mә-/ 'third person pronominal prefix'.  Therefore,  Úå³ yuM /jum/  'home',  [ó¡ fi /phi/ 'cloth'  ų sM /sə̀m/  'hair' are all pronominal nouns  as they can be formed as derivative words like  ÒüÚå³  IyuM /ijum/  'my/our home',   >[ó¡ nfi /nәphi/  'your cloth', ³Å³ msM /mәsə̀m/  'his/her/their hair'  with the pronominal prefixes.   The pronominal nouns are marked with the symbol n pro.

 

Bound Pronominal noun (bn pro)

 

There are bound nouns in Manipuri that basically need a pronominal prefix in order to become full-fledged words.  They are listed with the third person pronominal prefix   -³ m /mә-/  as headwords in the Dictionary.  They are marked with the symbol bn pro.  The prefix may be replaced by either the first person pronominal prefix  Òü- I /i-/  or the second person pronominal prefix   >- n /nә-/ in use.

 

 

 

 

 

Pronoun (pron)

 

Substitute headwords of nouns are pronouns.  Therefore  ' AE /әi/  'I',  >R¡ nx /nәŋ/  'you (sq.)',  ³[Î msi /mәsì/  'this, it/,   ³ƒå mdu /mәdu/  'that', etc. are all pronouns.  These headwords are marked with the symbol pron.

 

Modifying word

 

Modifying words consist adjectives and adverbs.  Most of the Manipuri modifiers are derived from bound verbal roots with the help of derivative affixes.  There are also bound modifiers in Manipuri that basically need a pronominal prefix in order to become full-fledged words.  They are listed with the third person pronominal prefix   ³- m /mә-/ as headwords in the Dictionary.  These bound pronominal modifiers are marked with the symbol b mod pro.  The prefix may be replaced by either the first person pronominal prefix  Òü- I /i-/ or the second person pronominal prefix  >- n /nә-/.

The other full-fledged modifying words are listed as separate headwords.  They are marked with the symbol mod.

 

Conjunction

 

Words that join words, phrases or sentences are conjunctions.  These headwords are marked with the abbreviated form conj.

 

Affix

 

Affixes play a great role in the word formation of Manipuri Language.  They are of two types:  Prefix and Suffix.

 

Prefix (pref)

 

Prefixes followed by a hyphen are listed in the dictionary as headwords.  They are marked with the symbol pref.

 

Suffix (suff)

 

Suffixes preceded by a hyphen are also listed in the Dictionary as headwords.  They are marked with the symbol suff.

 

COMPOUND

 

A compound is a word formed by adding another word to a headword.  It is written as one word  ( ë³à>Jàl¡ü  moNSaU /monkhao/   'pillowcase') or as two words separated by a hyphen  ( óå¡Uà-¯à¹ã fuZga-wari /phga-waɾi/  'folk tale') or as two separate words  ( lå¡A¡à> ³šå  dukaN mpu /dukan mәpu/ 'a shop owner').

 

There are compounds which are partially or completely changed either in structure or in meaning or in both from the original structure and meaning of the constituent words.  They are listed as separate headwords in the Dictionary.  Other compounds which do not change both in structure and meaning are put within the entries of the relevant headwords after a symbol ■.

 

 

PHRASAL VERB

 

Phrasal verbs are verbs which consist of two or sometimes more words.  The last word is a verb and it is preceded by a noun or a modifier.  In this dictionary, phrasal verbs are explained within the noun or modifying headwords with which they occur after a symbol   PHRV .

 

IDIOM

 

An idiom is a phrase whose meaning is dificult or sometimes impossible to guess by looking at the meanings of the individual words it contains.  In this dictionary, idioms are defined at the entry for the first  'full' word that they contain.  Idioms follow the main senses of a word, in a section marked  IDM  .

 

SAYING

 

Saying are the short well-known sentences or phrases that state a general truth about life or give advice.  In this dictionary, sayings are defined at the entry for the first 'full' word that they contain in a section marked  SAYING  .